Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Criminal Procedure Unit 2 Homework Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Criminal Procedure Unit 2 Homework - Article Example The court, be that as it may, balanced earlier understandings of the conditions, preposterous hunt and seizure, to incorporate irrelevant interruption through innovation as a pursuit. The court led two draw out tests, which required the respondent to show whether he had abstract creative mind. In such manner, such creative mind concerned the encompassing where the inquiry was directed and whether the general public acknowledges such desire as sensible. The court decided that Mr. Katz had a sensible desire for protection inside the pay phone and that cops had no urgent condition. In this manner, it was fundamental for them to look for a guarantee before attempted such an activity. The term seizure is utilized to portray any type of obstruction to a person’s possessory enthusiasm for material merchandise. Preposterous seizure suggests a situation where the asset proprietor had a sensible expectation of protection in the things seized. An individual or property is supposed to be seized, when law implementing officials apply power to control the individual or property. This circumstance happens if the asset or individual doesn't practice one’s opportunity to leave the circumstance (Amar, 1994). The instance of Terry v. Ohio included Terry and two other men watched by cops in regular clothes. The officials accepted that the men were ‘casing an occupation, a stick-up’, and therefore, they continued to search the three men (Lichtenberg, 2001). The officials recouped unlawful weapons held by the two men. The court addressed whether the inquiry and seizure of the men added up to a break of the Fourth Amendment. The court concluded that the hunt performed by the cops was sensible under the Fourth Amendment. The court established that the cops worked on more than a ‘hunch’ and that a sensible man would have been enticed to accept that

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Print Vs. Press :: essays research papers

Print versus Press      In today’s decisions the Media is probably the greatest impact in many races. During the time the Media has changed calm a piece. As much of the time, today’s innovation has upset the Media and the manner in which we get our data. In addition to the fact that we hear about decisions through the media, we learn of refreshed news relating to our regular day to day existences. There are two kinds of Media that presents various upgrades, which fluctuate considerably from nature to content. The two kinds are the Printing press and the Electronic press. Both assume significant jobs in instructing and advising our country.      The Print media is most popular for it’s â€Å"excel in passing on authentic subtleties (graber189).† Graber proceeds to include that the print media is commonly credited with passing on more information that varying media does. One Critic by the name of Neil Postman says that if our country is presented to an excessive amount of TV, we may transform into a country of trifler who stay away from the major issues of the world. I feel that we are seeing a portion of that now. Take a gander at Clinton for instance, our media has not been as engaged with how well our nation has been doing. Or maybe the media is consistent telling the country who he lays down with and what he has for breakfast. In actuality, the papers, etc are giving us realities. They are disclosing to us increasingly about the human services change, and about issues over oceans. We as a country need to think progressively about our nation and put aside a portion of our delight. One on the ma jor destructions of the print machine is that, most occasions the news we read is that of old news. On the off chance that there is an assault in Russia on Wednesday, at that point it won't be until Thursday or Friday until we read it in the paper. Another model is that of Time magazine. Endorsers of Time for the most part get their magazine up to 14 days after the fact that the most recent news. I feel that the print machine is for the more educational gathering and ought not be left in obscurity.      The Electronic Media is anyway advantageous and has the capacity of arriving at a huge number of individuals inside merely minutes. Consider somebody climbing in the forested areas. On the off chance that there is a worldwide issue and the president needs to address the country the climber could find out about this through a mobile phone.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay on Importance of Vaccination

Essay on Importance of Vaccination Vaccination Against Infectious Diseases Dec 20, 2018 in Healthcare Vaccination Necessary to the Nations Health The discovery of vaccines became the break in medicine of the 19th century and helped to fight the dangerous infections which took millions of peoples lives. All people understood the need to prevent infectious diseases, and for a long time nobody had doubted that inoculations needed to be done. Today, the relation to vaccinations is ambiguous. The disputes between parents, doctors, journalists and independent experts have not ceased for some years, whether to inoculate or not to inoculate children. All arguing were divided into three groups: those who support vaccination, inocul ate themselves and inoculate their children; those who are categorically against vaccinations, thus, they were inoculated in the childhood but their children were not inoculated or inoculated with the violation of the inoculations calendar; those who have not decided yet, they read, listen, look for the answer and sometime later they make a positive decision on vaccination. When the child is born, he/she usually has immunity to some diseases. It is a merit of antibodies, struggling with diseases, which are transmitted through a placenta from the mother to the future newborn. Subsequently, the baby, being nursed, receives constantly additional antibodies with breast milk. However, such immunity is only temporary.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Protection of White Superiority in Americas Justice...

Essay #2 The United States prides itself on the fairness of its criminal justice system, a system that promises to protect the lives, liberties, and property of all citizens. As the threat of being a victim of a crime applies to all citizens of the United States, most Americans would agree that wrongdoers must be punished in order to maintain a safe and civil society. However, as demonstrated in Michelle Alexander’s book The New Jim Crow and Spike Lee’s film Do The Right Thing, the United States’ criminal justice system is a modern form of racial control. Although criminal laws are textually and facially impartial in regards to race, they are implemented in a way that is biased and discriminatory towards African Americans. Using Michael†¦show more content†¦In other words, obvious and direct forms of racial discrimination in the United States are viewed as socially unacceptable. For example, instead of talking about a need to put more African Americans in prison, â€Å"we talk about locking up more and more people, [but] what we’re really talking about is locking up more and more black men† (Alexander 105). The reason we perceive the word people to refer to African Americans is due to tactics used by the media when reporting on crime. Rather than report on crimes committed by blacks as well as by whites, â€Å"news stories regarding virtually all street crime have disproportionally featured African American offenders† (Alexander 106). As a result of the media’s inaccurate coverage of crime, our â€Å"racial schemas operate not only as part of conscious, rational deliberations, but also-automatically-without conscious awareness or intent† (Alexander 106). We have become conditioned to view African Americans as more likely to engage in criminal activities even though, for example, â€Å"African Americans constituted only 15 percent of current drug users in 1995, and they constitute roughly the same percentage today† (Alexander 106). Although this evidence proves that African Americans are not more likely to be drug users, people are hesitant in addressing this misconception for discussing issues about â€Å"race makes people uncomfortable† (Alexander 238). In particular, â€Å"police and prosecutors-like mostShow MoreRelatedRacial Profiling And The Civil Rights Movement1239 Words   |  5 PagesTopic/Question: Have Black Lives Mattered? – Racial profiling in the justice system, increased incarceration of African Americans and the idea of â€Å"White Privilege† persists in the United States. 1. Introduction Even though America is the world dominating superpower and is known to intervene on behalf of the violation of human rights internationally, it fails to acknowledge and correct the flaws its legal and justice system present against its own citizens. African Americans have long been targetedRead MoreThe Apparatus Of Violence In The Jim Crow Machine. Gabrielle1767 Words   |  8 PagesJim Crow, a system of sustainable racial inequality, had a significant scope on racial relations for subsequent years to come. Jim Crow laws and its prescribed etiquette operated and represented the legitimization of anti blackness primarily but not exclusively in southern states of the United States. Scholarship has justifiably surveyed these codes of conduct with stressing African American disenfranchisement. However, violence has been presumed as a byproduct of the Jim Crow system, rather thanRead MoreFreedom In America2258 Words   |  10 PagesThe United States of America is and has always been ver y close to realizing democracy’s ideal of a country where there is â€Å"liberty and justice for all†, though a number of factors have conspired to move the country away from them in the past, and threaten to do so in our immediate future. Though their outcomes have varied considerably over the years, the main factors causing the U.S to stray from its ideals of freedom and equality have always been one or both of the following factors—discriminationRead MoreFeminism Is Defined As The Belief That Men And Women Should Have Equal Rights1600 Words   |  7 Pagesissues, which included sexuality, workplace, family, reproductive rights, domestic violence, etc. The second wave was a reaction to America’s post-World War II obsession of the ideal housewife that severely limited women’s choices and opportunities. During this period, middle and upper class women questioned their domestic roles and the patriarchal ideas of male superiority. Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, feminists wanted to create a world of possibilities for women by promoting positive imagesRead MoreThe Controversial Supreme Court Case Of Brown V. Board Of Education Essay2371 Words   |  10 Pages1951. Mr. Oliver Brown brought his complaint to the Board of Education of Topeka. The complaint was simple, â€Å"[the] plaintiffs were being deprived of the equal protection of the laws because infant plaintiffs were compel led to attend segregated schools which could never provide an education for Negroes equal to the education offered whites because of the very nature of segregation, and were also unequal in certain tangible respects.† Brown’s complaint was fighting against the previous ruling of PlessyRead MoreAffirmative Action Was Created By Universities2060 Words   |  9 Pagesto all of these legislations working to limit the power, Affirmative Action has not proved to be a successful way to educate the next generation. By creating standards on education, America is hindering the progress of America by directly defying America’s independence and the nation’s freedom. This practice is not only creating racism in a free country, but it removes the student’s merit from the descision of their futures. Affirmative Action removes the decision of merit from the students enteringRead MoreEssay about The Growth and Development of Ideas on Race2191 Words   |  9 Pagesbut after this, records seem to dry up. Five hundred years later, their presence was once again documented, as free men who came to trade with English merchants. By the 1560s the Slave Trade had begun. This was a highly integrated global system operating in Africa, Europe and the Americas, involving the forced transportation of millions of Africans to the Americas. There was also an increased African presence in Britain, which continued to grow into the 1570s, which was madeRead MoreWomen in the Judiciary Essay2000 Words   |  8 Pagesneeds more women in the judiciary because women represent over half of the population, women represent nearly half of all lawyers, women bring invaluable life experiences to the bench, and more women in the judiciary is a better representation of America’s diverse society. According to the 2010 census conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of men is 151,781,326, or 49.2% of the total United States Population (Population by Sex and Selected Age Groups: 2000 and 2010 2). The U.S. populationRead MoreThe World Were In by Will Hutton4102 Words   |  17 PagesAmerican ideology, but in the end, this doesnt matter so much; see below). Ill give the book a +, but for rather complicated reasons. This book is a classic example of taking two gray objects, then painting one black and one white. Lily-pure Europeembodies compassion, growth without exploitation, and a clear long-term vision for an enlightened society. Vulgar (conservative) America represents unbalanced greed, questionable morals, and zeal for short-term profit Read MoreThe Fallacy of ‘Emancipation’: African Americans in Florida from 1865 - 1870 1918 Words   |  8 PagesLincoln’s assassination. To add to former slave woes, the southern economy lay destitute. Many southerners felt the added wage earners (former slaves) would destroy the cotton business’s productivity. Stated thus, many African-Americans were subjugated by White Elitists. Nevertheless, black Floridians advocated for economic, social, and even political equality, despite the hostile environment. This is interesting because it goes against the popular misconception of Florida’s history. During my secondary school

Thursday, May 14, 2020

10 Fascinating Facts About Dung Beetles

Is there anything cooler than a dung beetle pushing a ball of poo? We think not. But lest you disagree, please consider these 10 fascinating facts about dung beetles. 1. Dung Beetles Eat Poop Dung beetles are coprophagous insects, meaning they eat the excrement of other organisms. Although not all dung beetles eat poop exclusively, they all eat feces at some point in their lives. Most prefer to feed on herbivore droppings, which are largely undigested plant matter, rather than carnivore waste, which holds very little nutritional value for insects. Recent research at the University of Nebraska suggests dung beetles may be most attracted to omnivore excrement since it provides both nutritional value and the right amount of odor to make it easy to find. 2.  Not All Dung Beetles Roll Their Poop When you think of a dung beetle, you probably picture a beetle pushing a ball of poop along the ground. But some dung beetles don’t bother rolling neat little dung balls at all. Instead, these coprophages stay close to their fecal finds. Aphidian dung beetles (subfamily Aphodiinae) simply live within the dung they find, often cow patties, rather than investing energy in moving it. The earth-boring dung beetles (family Geotrupidae) typically tunnel below the dung pile, making a burrow that can then be easily provisioned with poop. 3. Nests Filled With Poop for Offspring When dung beetles do carry or roll the dung away, they do so primarily to feed their young. Dung beetle nests are provisioned with poop, and the female usually deposits each egg in its own tiny dung sausage. When the larvae emerge, they are well-supplied with food, enabling them to complete their development within the safe environment of the nest. 4. Dung Beetles are Good Parents Dung beetles are one of the few groups of insects that exhibit parental care for their young. In most cases, child-rearing responsibilities fall on the mother, who constructs the nest and provisions it with food for her young. But in certain species, both parents share child care duties to some degree. In the Copris and Ontophagus dung beetles, the male and female work together to dig their nests. Certain Cephalodesmius dung beetles even mate for life. 5. Particular About the Poop They’ll Eat For most dung beetles, not just any poop will do. Many dung beetles specialize on the dung of particular animals, or types of animals, and simply will not touch the poo of other critters. Australians learned this lesson the hard way when the outback was nearly buried in cattle dung. Two hundred years ago, settlers introduced horses, sheep, and cattle to Australia, all grazing animals that were new to the native dung beetles. The Australian dung beetles were raised on poop from Down Under, like kangaroo poo, and refused to clean up after the exotic newcomers. Around 1960, Australia imported exotic dung beetles that were adapted to eating cattle dung, and things got back to normal. 6. Really Good at Finding Poop When it comes to poop, the fresher the better (at least from the dung beetles perspective). Once a dung patty has dried out, it’s less palatable to even the most dedicated poop eater. So dung beetles move quickly when an herbivore drops a gift in the pasture. One scientist observed 4,000 dung beetles on a fresh pile of elephant scat within 15 minutes after it hit the ground, and shortly thereafter, they were joined by an additional 12,000 dung beetles. With that kind of competition, you have to move quickly if you’re a dung beetle. 7. Navigate Using the Milky Way With so many dung beetles vying for the same pile of poop, a beetle needs to make a quick getaway once he’s rolled his dung ball. But it’s not easy to roll a ball of poop in a straight line, especially when you’re pushing your ball from behind using your hind legs. So the first thing the dung beetle does is climb atop his sphere and orient himself. Scientists had long observed dung beetles dancing on their poo balls, and suspected they were looking for cues to help them navigate. New research confirmed that at least one species of African dung beetle, Scarabaeus satyrus, uses the Milky Way as a guide to steering its dung ball home. The researchers placed tiny hats on the dung beetles, effectively blocking their view of the heavens, and found the dung beetles could only wander aimlessly without being able to see the stars. 8. Use Their Poop Balls to Cool Off Have you ever walked barefoot across a sandy beach on a scorching hot summer day? If so, you probably did your share of hopping, skipping, and running to avoid painful burns to your feet. Since dung beetles often live in similarly hot, sunny places, scientists wondered if they, too, worried about burning their tootsies. A recent study showed that dung beetles use their dung balls to cool off. Around noon, when the sun is at its peak, dung beetles will routinely climb atop their dung balls to give their feet a break from the hot ground. The scientists tried putting tiny, silicone booties on the dung beetles, and they discovered the beetles wearing shoes would take fewer breaks and push their dung balls longer than the beetles that were barefoot. Thermal imaging also showed that the dung balls were measurably cooler than the surrounding environment, probably because of their moisture content. 9. Some are Surprisingly Strong Even a small ball of fresh dung can be hefty to push, weighing 50 times the weight of the determined dung beetle. Male dung beetles need exceptional strength, not just for pushing dung balls but also for fending off male competitors. The individual strength record goes to a male Onthphagus taurus dung beetle, which pulled a load equivalent to 1,141 times its own body weight. How does this compare to human feats of strength? This would be like a 150-pound person pulling 80 tons. 10. Ancient Dung Beetles Existed Because they lack bones, insects rarely show up in the fossil record. But we do know that dung beetles existed around 30 million years ago because paleontologists have found fossilized dung balls the size of tennis balls from that time. Prehistoric dung beetles collected the poop of South America’s megafauna: car-sized armadillos, sloths taller than modern houses, and a peculiar long-necked herbivore called Macrauchenia.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Fundamental And Structural Principles Of The...

A constitution refers to a set of rules and guidelines intended to create both the fundamental and structural principles of the government in a state or nation. A constitution is either written or unwritten. On one hand, a written constitution is a formal document that defines the attributes or characteristics of the constitutional settlement, the rules governing the political system and the roles and responsibilities of the government and rights of citizens and inhabitants in a codified form (Shamgar 345). On the other hand, an unwritten or uncodified constitution refers to a form of the constitution where the essential rules of any nation’s government are in the form of customs, precedent, usage, and a range of statutes and legal instruments. Only three countries in the world have an unwritten constitution. They include the United Kingdom, Israel, and New Zealand. Ordinarily, a constitution is written following major political revolutions or reforms. For instance, the United States of America wrote their constitution in 1787 following the Second World War. Germany and Japan also wrote theirs at that time. Written Constitution versus Unwritten Constitution Traditionally, there were two main reasons why constitutions were essential. First, it offered an explanation on the structure of the government and its roles and responsibilities. Second, governments and citizens viewed a constitution as the pillar of liberal democracy. However, Heywood (2007) argues that the twoShow MoreRelatedGlobalization - Turkey1743 Words   |  7 Pagesoutstanding performance characterized by continuous growth. With a solid macroeconomic strategy accompanied by prudent fiscal measures and major structural reforms in place since 2002, the Turkish economy has become integrated in a global environment and transform the country into one of the most popular destinations in the region for FDI. Structural reforms, spurred by the accession process of Turkey to the EU, have paved the way for comprehensive changes in many areas. These efforts were primarilyRead MoreThe United States Constittution Essay examples1114 Words   |  5 PagesThe United States Constitution AMERICAN HISTORY – Pre-Columbian through the Civil War After the War the 13 colonies first formed a very weak central government under the Articles of Confederation. This government lacked, for example, any power to impose taxes, as it had no method of enforcing payment. It had no authority to override tax laws and tariffs between states. The Articles required unanimous consent from all the states before any changes could take effect. States took the central governmentRead MoreFeatures Of The Written Constitution Essay1556 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will analyze in detail features of the written constitution and explain whether it should be included or not. Firstly, I would give a specific definition of a constitution. Then I state clear summary of three features of current New Zealand constitution comprised of democracy principle, its timely adaptability, and its various sources. After that, there are three features of written constitution which are democracy principles, an entrenched law and an enforceable mechanism would be illu stratedRead MoreRoles and Functions of Law Essay863 Words   |  4 Pagesantitrust, bankruptcy, patent, copyright, and some maritime cases. Federal court jurisdiction, by contrast, is limited to the types of cases listed in the Constitution and specifically provided for by Congress. For the most part, federal courts only hear cases in which the United States is a party, Cases involving violations of the U.S. Constitution or federal laws (under federal-question jurisdiction), Cases between citizens of different states if the amount in controversy exceeds $75,000 (under diversityRead MorePaper1748 Words   |  7 PagesDr. Younkuk Chois ECM Eyes Current Medical News Commentaries - Viewpoints from an Eight-Constitution Medicine Clinician - í•Å"ì ËœÃ¬â€š ¬ ì µÅ"ìâ€" °Ãª µ ­Ã¬ Ëœ ECM Eyes ì µÅ"ì‹  Ã¬ ËœÃ­â€¢â„¢Ã«â€° ´Ã¬Å  ¤Ã­â€¢ ´Ã¬â€ž ¤ - 8ì ² ´Ã¬ §Ë†Ã¬Å¾â€žÃ¬Æ' Ã¬ ËœÃ¬â€š ¬Ã¬ Ëœ 안ë ª © - Preface Around April of 2015, while I was preparing for the 50th anniversary of the introduction of eight-constitution medicine (ECM) and ECM academic seminar, I planned on making the Teacher’s Day event in May and ECM Day event in October, which I had previously attended with some colleagues, open to other interested fellowRead MoreLiberal Nature of Indian State1308 Words   |  6 PagesDISCUSS THE NATURE OF THE INDIAN STATE ACCORDING TO LIBERAL PERSPECTIVE. The state is being perceived as an organised structural and institutional whole epitomizing the power relations of society. The state in a developing society arise from historical factors and interacts with society through its decisive role in the economic process of the nation. To study the nature of any particular state, it is necessary to analyse to relation between state, power, and social classes and the purpose ofRead MoreWomen s Status Of Women1668 Words   |  7 Pagesscenario of women in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh is committed to attain the objectives of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and MDGs in conformity with the fundamental rights enshrined in the Bangladesh Constitution. Constitutional and Legal Status In Bangladesh, the proliferation of statutory mandates and the state constitutional provisions against sexual discrimination are both catalyst and consequence of changing attitudes towardsRead MoreAboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Peoples975 Words   |  4 Pages1931 (Prokhovnik, 2015). In 1948, through Commonwealth legislation, the legal entity of Australian citizen was created, followed by the final UK parliament’s Australia Act of 1986, which removed the UK’s parliament power to change the Australian constitution and legally put an end to Australia’s dependence (Prokhovnik, 2015). Even though the 1948 federal Nationality and Citizenship Act ‘awarded’ Aborigines with the formal status of citizens, perhaps as a symbolic process, they were still facing systemicRead MoreThe Importance of Religion in Indian Politics Essay1069 Words   |  5 Pages Its independence from Britain in 1947, the partition creating Pakistan and the Pakistan/ Indian debate over Kashmir have been fundamental political movements within these years. As Y.B.Damle states, â€Å"Politics is concerned with goal-attainment and politics is the art of possibility†, the political process cannot function without structural features. As a country with multiple religions, a secular state, the political process has been moulded around not only ethnicityRead MoreThe Politics Of The United States1315 Words   |  6 Pagesdemocratic. That being said, the infrastructure of the system in place in the United States is vastly different from that of the UK. Trias Politica As a relatively new country less than a quarter of a millennium old, the USA operates with a codified constitution ratified in 1788. This document outlines a national framework of government. Key to this is the notion of a separation of powers, whereby the executive, judiciary and legislature are separate and independent of each other. The president of the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ottoman empire Essay Example For Students

Ottoman empire Essay Around 1293 the chieftain of a nomadic Turkish tribe named Osman, founded an empire that would endure almost six hundred years. As this empire grew by conquering lands of the Byzantine Empire and beyond, it came to include, at its height, all of Asia Minor, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Egypt, Crete, Cyprus, Palestine, and North Africa through Algeria; parts of Hungry, Austria, Russia, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, U. A.E., and Syria. The elite tactics and fearsome fighting of the well trained Janissary Corps helped make the Ottoman Empire one of the largest in the world’s history. -1- The first â€Å"army† of the Ottoman Empire was made up Gazis, Turkish faith fighters. They were effective against small countries and principalities, but were not always reliable. (J.F. VonHamer-Purgstal 771) For example, the original Ottoman state was very close to Constantinople, the capital of the struggling Byzantine Empire, it was not captured until 1453. At the time of its formation the Ottoman state could not defeat the defending armies of Constantinople due to its small and untrained army. (Bossenbrook 504) In addition, when the Ottomans went to face the larger and more powerful army of the Tatar Empire, under the leadership of Tamerlane, the Gazis deserted. Left with an army made of Christian vassals, the Ottomans fell to the Tatar army. (J.F. VonHamer-Purgstal 771) Since the Gazis proved to be unreliable Sultan Murad I around 1371 thought it necessary to build up an army that would have superior fighting power and be loyal to him. He began to build up the power of various non-Turkish groups in his service, particularly those composed of Christian slaves and converts to Islam. (J.F. VonHamer-Purgstal 771) -2- This new military infantry was well organized and trained; it was called the Janissary Corps. (J. F. VonHamer-Purgstal 773) These Janissary warriors were mostly composed of Christians or Jews who had converted to Islam. They were brought up in the Janissary camp from about the age of 5. They were trained to be fearsome warriors, although some were trained to be administrators. Most of the Janissary soldiers were in the cavalry. The cavalry was one of the main keys to the Ottoman’s many victories. The Janissary Corp’s soldiers were paid with a regular salary now that the country was established and taxes were collected. â€Å"Orhan’s son of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire capture of Bursa in 1324 provided the first means for developing the administrative, financial, and military power necessary to make this principality into a real state and create an army† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 773). The Janissary Corps were the most awesome force that Europe had contended with for centuries. They were the most fearsome fighters to attack Europe since Gengis Khan’s Golden Hordes. They fought like well trained animals. â€Å"Orhan soon was able to capture the remaining Byzantine towns in north- western Antola: Iznik(1331), Izmit(1337), and Uskudar(1338)† (J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 771). -3- â€Å"Murad conquered Thorace, northwest of Constantinople in 1361. He moved the capital to Adrianople† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 772). The Ottomans were not always expanding by means of war and conquest. They also gained territory through marriage and purchases. â€Å"Bayezed extended the empire in Europe and added outposts along the Black Sea† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 773). The Ottomans became more powerful and now they added an artillery branch to their Janissary training. â€Å"Murad then inaugurated the First Venetian Ottoman War (1423-30) .. . Venice moreover accepted Solonica to prevent further Ottoman expansion† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 773). Murad had been warning Venice that if it didn’t give up Solonica to the Ottomans, it would be forced to go to war with them. Venice at the time had the largest navy and thought it could defeat the Ottomans, who lacked a large navy. So Murad then ordered a grand navy to be built. It was completed within a year’s time, and the Ottomans went to war. .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .postImageUrl , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:hover , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:visited , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:active { border:0!important; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:active , .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89 .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u856ecd6776c90b8e55710e46f6476b89:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: War Simulation Softwar Essay -4- At first they attacked the harbor cities for 6 years, then they landed the Janissaries and they easily overcame the small Venetian militia. â€Å"The Ottomans rapidly became a sea power in the eastern Mediterranean† (Bossenbrook 504). After the win against Venice Sultan Bayezid was pushed into making more conquests in Europe by his militant Deusirme group. So in 1483 he pushed the power of the Ottoman Empire south of the Danube by taking Slovia and Hersegovania. â€Å" Bayezid was forced into a number of campaigns by the exigencies of time and the demands of his more militant Devsirme followers. In Europe, he rounded off the Empire south of the Danube and Slovia by taking Hersegovania (1483)m leaving only Belgrade out of Ottman’s control† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 774). The Ottomans had always wanted control of Mesopotamia and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. In the month of August,1514 they went to war against the Safavid army. They crush the army of Safavid because they had superiority in tactics and weapons (they also had gunpowder and cannons, compared to the Safavid, bows, arrows and spears. -5- ‘‘The Ottoman and Safavid armies clashed at Chaldiran of the eastern side of the Euphrates (Aug. 23, 1516) and the Safavids were routed by the Ottoman superiority in weapons and tactics-particularly because they had cannons and gunpowder, in contrast to the Safavid’s bows, arrows and spears ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 778). â€Å"The Byzantine empire was weakened by Latin conquests, and now it was further enfeebled by the loss of areas from which they might draw soldiers and revenues.. . those conquered territories encircled the city of Constantinople; it was therefore in a very precarious position† (Bossenbrook 504). The Ottomans, now with a powerful, better trained and well supplied army, went and sieged the city of Constantinople (April 6-May 28, 1453). Finally on May 29,1453 the city fell to the powerful army of the Ottomans. The Ottomans changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul, and made it its capitol. Venice had built up a series of forts along the Agean Sea (they considered it to be a Venetian Sea). The Ottomans saw them as a threat to their navy and expansion. They demanded the Venitians to surrender them. -6- â€Å"When Venice refused to surrender its important forts on the Agean coast of the Morea, Mehemed inaugurated the second Venitian-Ottoman War (1463-79) and several naval raids led to peace in 1479 whereby Venice gave up its forts and paid an annual tribute† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 778). After the defeat of the Safavid army Selim took the opportunity to attack the weak state of the Mamluks, who were in a period of civil disorder, due to the death of their leader. The Ottomans crushed the small and out manned army. By 1517 the Ottomans had control of Syria and Egypt. â€Å"With Shah Esmail of the Safavid Empire still busy restoring his army, Selim was able to overcome the Mamluks in a single years campaign during the summer and winter of 1516-17. The Mamluk army fell easily to the well organized and disciplined Ottoman infantry and cavalry, supported by artillery† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 778). The Europeans had started to fear the Ottomans in the latter half of the 13th century. In the 16th century Doria of Spain thought that an allied force of European armies personally led by him would be able to defeat the Ottoman’s navy’s power in the Mediterranean. -7- And thus, allow European countries to colonize Crete, Cyprus and Northern Africa. â€Å"Dorian then organized and led an allied European naval force against the Ottomans, but it was routed at the Battle of Preveza (September 25-28 1538). Venice then surrendered it last possessions in the Agean, Morea, and Dalmatia, thus assuring Ottoman naval supremacy† ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 779). .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .postImageUrl , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:hover , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:visited , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:active { border:0!important; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:active , .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3 .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u472436f0c2121fee9bfe82310e5eabc3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Teenage pregnancy The IssuesThe causes and the eff Essay Meanwhile the Ottoman Empire continued to conquer and terrorize Europe for 200 years more. But slow decline of the Sultan’s power led to the decline of the empire. It started after Suleyman I died in 1566. The Ottomans suffer their first military defeat in 1683, and from then on started losing territories. ( J. F. von Hamer-Pugstall 783) The Ottoman military fearsomeness was still in existence after the empire had disintegrated. Turkey was formed after the Ottoman Empire was destroyed in 1918 following the final defeat in World War I. The fear of Turkish fighters was abundant during World War II. Turkish infantryman would wrap rope around their chest and stomach prior to a ground attack. -8- These soldiers would attack with sword in hand to lop off the heads of enemy soldiers even after being shot many times. The rope around the body would help keep the Turk from collapsing as he was being â€Å"filled with lead†; he would then be able to reach his victim and â€Å"take one with him† ( Portillo, 1994). -9-Bibliography: